Leonardo da Vinci: The Last Supper

When one refers to the name Leonardo da Vinci, “The Last Supper” is considered as one of his finest works.

The painting was commissioned by Sforza to be the centre piece of the mausoleum at the Convent of Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan, Italy and measures some 15 feet x 29 feet in size.

The disciples sit either side of Jesus as depicted in the picture, all displaying facial emotions, which relate to him telling them he would be betrayed by one of them.

Looking at the picture we see Bartholomew, James son of Alphaeus and Andrew form a group of three, with a surprised look upon their faces, and seated on the far left. Next we have Judas Iscariot, Peter and John form the next group of three; Judas partly covers his face, Peter shows anger and John looks ready to confront the perpetrator.

Jesus sits in the middle backed by three windows.

Thomas, James the Greater and Phillip sit as another group of three to his right. Thomas is upset by such a suggestion, James appears stunned and Phillip seeks an answer. Mathew, Jude Thaddeus and Simon the Zealot make up the final group of three; Jude and Mathew gaze at Simon believing he has the answer.

Over the centuries the image has fallen apart. The reason for this is that if Leonardo had kept to the time old tradition of using tempera on wet plaster, the proffered method for fresco paintings, rather than experimenting using dry plaster for a more varied palette. The image might have stood up to the years of neglect.

Instead his experimental method, proved to be a failure, and neglect saw the painting undergo many restorations over the centuries.

The painting was completed on 9th February 1498, and early signs of flaking were visible by 1517.

In 1652 a doorway was cut through the picture but later bricked up.

  • In 1726 Michelangelo Bellotti carried out a restoration by filling in missing parts using oil paint, and then varnished the whole picture.
  • In 1768, a curtain was hung over it as a form of protection, but when pulled back it scratched at the flaking paint.
  • In 1770 Giuseppe Mazza stripped off Bellotti’s repair, and repainted nine of the faces, but was halted due to public outrage.

In 1796 the French revolutionary troops used the refectory as an armoury, and threw stones at the image and later it became a prison.

In 1821 Stefano Barezzi attempted the removal of the painting, but was forced to re-attach damaged parts with glue.

  • In 1901-1908 Luigi Cavenaghi studied the structure of the painting, and cleaned it.
  • In 1921 Oreste Silvestri cleaned it further, and stabilised parts using stucco.

During World War II, the refectory wall was protected with sandbags, and managed to survive, when on 15th August 1943, the refectory was bombed.

1951-1954 Mauro Pelliccioli cleaned and restored the image.

  • 1978-1999 Pinn Brambilla Barcilon undertook a restoration project to save this most important work from total destruction.

On the 28th May 1999 the painting was put back on show, for the entire world to see.

 

(Image) The Last Supper by Leonardo da Vinci: Wikipedia

The Plague that Savaged Europe

Medieval Europe of the 13th century came to an end. The warm climate that had prevailed turned to a “Little Ice Age” as temperatures plummeted, and harsh winters were experienced, with smaller harvests.

The Black Death is believed to have originated in the 6th and 7th centuries and called “The Plague of Justinian.” According to historical facts, some 40% of Constantinople’s people died from the plague as it ran wild, with no known cure.

It was to disappear as easily as it arrived, and would not rage havoc upon this world again until the 14th century.

It is believed the Black Death Plague reared its head once again in the arid plains of Central Asia, in regions close to China. From there it travelled along the Silk Road, reaching Crimea in 1346. The disease was carried by fleas, which would live on the coats of black rats, who travelled upon merchant ships.

The Black Death Plague is believed to have started in the latter parts of the 1320’s in the Gobi desert.

According to weather conditions in the early part of the 14th century, Earth underwent a period of extreme cold weather, as temperatures plummeted well below what would be considered normal temperatures for that time of year.

  • In 1345 the plague had reached the Volga River.
  • By 1346 it had reached Caucasus and Crimea.
  • By 1347 it had spread to Constantinople.

There was no control against this disease as it spread from village to village, town to town, and country to country, as thousands died, day by day. The disease was known to travel by sea and land, with no available solution to stop it, in its tracks.

  • By the winter of 1347 it had reached Italy, and reports were coming in, it was running rampant through the streets of Rome and Florence.
  • January 1348 the plague had reached Marseilles, for the dead were lying where they died; in houses and on the streets.
  • It travelled along the Rhine, and reached Germany in 1348 and the low countries.
  • By the middle of 1348, this disease had struck Paris, Bordeax, Lyon and London.
  • Norway was hit by the plague in May 1349.
  • The Eastern European Countries in 1350.
  • It reached Russia in 1351.

What was this disease that was responsible for the killing of millions, with no way to halt it, in its tracks?

We know it as Bubonic Plague an organism carried by rodents and fleas. The process from first symptoms of fever to death lasts three to four days at most … this disease is swift and terrifying.

Forms of the Disease?

Bubonic Plague was considered a fatal disease during the 14th century, but things have changed now, for we have a cure, if the drug can be administered in time.

If the victim, the patient is suffering from malnutrition, it is a much more deadly disease.

There are two typed of plague known; Septicaemic which attacks the blood and Pneumonic known to attack the lungs, and it airborne.

Accounts handed down through history, leave us to believe that some form of pneumonic plague ran alongside bubonic plague at the outbreak.

In October 1347, twelve Genoese trading vessels arrived at the harbour of Messina in Sicily. The sailors bore a disease that if anyone spoke or touched them; the disease attacked their body also. The infection spread one to another with such an alarming rate. Their bodies were covered with small black boils, and they would vomit blood. Once infected death was a welcome release to the pain, and death would take place in three to four days.

When the officials of Messina discovered this disease has no cure and originated from the fleet of trading ships sitting in their harbour, they were ordered to leave. Yet, it was too late; it had taken hold of the inhabitants of Messina, and spread like wildfire.

Corpses lay where they died, houses of the dead were not entered, and many were buried.

It didn’t take long for news to spread, that Messina had become a plague infected port, and residents fled their homes, seeking safety far away. Some settled in vineyards and fields, others descended upon the town of Catania. They didn’t realise they had become carriers of the plague.

The further the plague carriers of Messina spread through the island of Sicily, so the plague was expanded, becoming completely out of control. The disease infested Catania in late October of 1347 and by April 1348, no living person remained.

The Pope seeked help from medical scientists of Paris in 1348, in dealing with such a deadly disease, which was responsible for deaths on a large scale.

Their reply wasn’t the answer one had expected, they blamed the cause upon the planets; the conjunction of Saturn, Jupiter and Mars in the sign of Aquarius had taken place in 1345. This had caused hot moist conditions, and so the Earth had exhaled poisonous vapours.

They recommended no eating of meats, fish or poultry. Olive oil was dangerous and stress was to be avoided. They suggested one spends time with aromatic plants and herbs that had been grown naturally.

What actually worked was quarantine of one’s self from fleas and avoidance of anyone showing signs of disease.

Pope Clement VI from Avignon sat between two fires, thus the plagues bacillus was being destroyed by the heat, and the air he breathed was pure and clean.

Whilst the plague spread from town to town in Germany a new sect arose; the Flagellants, and believed they had the answer.

They stripped themselves to the waist, and marched through towns, undertaking penance, by inflicting punishments on their body to atone for their evils of the world. They flogged themselves until they drew blood. All they did was attract the attention of the Pope in October 1349, who condemned their actions, and outlawed it.

Man did not understand the biology of this disease and believed wrongly that Black Death was a divine punishment upon them by God for their wrong doings; Greed, Blasphemy, Heresy and Worldliness.

In turn they believed the Jewish communities were to blame, and many Jews were massacred in cities running close to the Rhine River.

Pope Clement VI stepped in to forbid the slaughter of Jews in 1348. Yet his words did not hold out, for in 1349 some two hundred Jews were burned to death in Strassbourg.

So it was during the 14th century, the Jewish communities were being pushed out of Western Europe and settled in Poland.

The lasting effects of the Plague?

14th century chroniclers stated, that this plague had affected everyone, whether they were rich or poor, young or old. Many lands and cities lay desolate.

This loss of life in such high numbers, and to such a disease, with no known cure, brought utter despair. For it is believed eighty out of every hundred died at the height of the disease. Many men of learning believed this marked the end of the world, it must have seemed so, as many died around them; friends, family and fellow scientists.

Political Fallout:

One would have expected to see political issues come into play, as the disease spread through country after country, killing thousands each and every day.

Yet the only reigning monarch to be struck down and die from the plague was King Alfonso XI of Castile. Other’s considered as lesser notables of their countries to be struck down and die from this disease included The Queen of Aragon and The Queen of France.

The Hundred Years War was suspended in 1348, due to high mortality rates amongst the military, caused by the plague, yet it was reconvened once the plague had passed.

The Black Death plague became one of the worst pandemics in human history, killing an estimated two hundred million people between 1347-1350.

The plague is reported of having haunted many countries throughout the 14th – 18theh centuries, fearing that Black Death would return and strike them down.

  • The Plague of London:  1603
  • The Italian Plague:  1629-1631
  • The Great Plague of Saville:  1647-1652
  • The Great Plague of London:  1665-1666
  • The Great Plague of Vienna:  1679
  • The Great Plague of Marseille:  1720-1722
  • The Great Plague of Europe:  1738
  • The Russian Plague:  1770-1772

Since the late 1770’s the Black Death plague gradually disappeared through all parts of Europe… Hopefully it will never rear its head again, yet we have to be on our guard at all times…

(Image) The Triumph of Death: Wikipedia

14th Century Peasant’s Revolt

Most English people worked the land during the 14th century, and produced food for the towns and cities. Then in 1348, the Black Death plague crossed the water’s from Europe into England, bringing with it death on a large scale, no one was immune. This disease took the lives of some fifty percent of the population.

Things had changed in England, and the peasant’s of this land were only too quick to see it. There was plenty of land in need of farming, but limited manpower to carry out the work.

Peasant’s charged for their work, and with manpower shortages, the prices were driven higher and higher, and landowner’s profits were driven lower and lower. Even landowners bartered with peasant’s to get their crops harvested and to market, even if it meant out-bidding fellow farmers.

The authorities had to step in amid growing chaos, and help farmers before it got completely out of control. So it was in 1349, emergency legislation was passed in the form of the “Ordinance of Labourer’s” and the “Statue of Labourer’s” in 1351. These bills were designed to re-set wages paid to peasants at pre Black Death rates. Under these bills it became illegal to refuse work offered or break existing contracts, with fines being imposed for offenders.

By 1361, the legislation of these bills had been strengthened to such an extent, that anyone breaking the rules faced the possibility of branding or imprisonment, for their actions.

The peasant’s were forced to work on church land for up to two days for free, but this meant that no food was grown for their families. They saw the church getting richer and richer, as they returned to olden times as they became one of the poor groups of society.

They wanted to break away from this tradition, for working for free on church land. If landowners paid, why shouldn’t they… John Ball a Priest from Kent backed their actions.

England had been at war with France, and more and more money was needed to take on their powerful armies. Whilst King Edward III of England, pressed home his claims to the French throne, so the long running conflict, known as the “Hundred Years War” would continue.

However, the might of Charles V of France increased in 1369, with cross-channel raids on English coastal towns.

A new King came to the English throne, when in 1377 King Edward III died, only to be replaced by Richard II aged ten.

The young King’s biggest challenge was how to raise the money to pay for his armies battling with the French. Early 14th century taxes were imposed on household’s moveable possessions; goods and livestock.

So Parliament introduced the controversial Poll Tax, where each person aged over 14, would have to pay.

By 1381, the peasant’s had witnessed the Poll Tax charges being rolled out three times over a four year period, and they had reached breaking point… If you were on the tax register, you paid or they took goods to the value.

In May 1381, villagers from the Essex village of Fobbing made a stand against Poll Tax payments. When John Brampton the tax collector arrived, checking why bills had not been paid, he was evicted from the village. In June soldiers arrived to establish law and order, and they too were evicted.

Villagers from Fobbing and many other village’s joined forces and marched on London, taking their grievances to the young King.

Peasant’s from Kent, led by Wat Tyler marched on Canterbury, and entered the walled city and castle on 10th June without resistance. The rebel force deposed the absent Archbishop Sudbury of Canterbury, and forced cathedral monks to swear allegiance to their cause.

The next morning Wat Tyler took his rebel force and marched on London, destroying tax records and burning down government tax houses on route. Upon arrival in London, the city gates were opened for them, by those who believed in their cause.

King Richard II left Windsor Castle by boat, taking up residence at the Tower of London.

Both groups of peasant’s had reached London by the 12th June. The Kent army of rebels camped at Blackheath and the Essex rebels at Mile End, north of the river Thames.

The King agreed to meet them on the afternoon of the 12th at Rotherhithe, but when faced by such a large army, he did not leave the Royal Barge, fearing for his safety and returned to the Tower of London.

On the 13th June rebels attacked the city, prisons were broken into, prisoners set free, and a number of people killed.

As parts of London burnt, Richard II agreed to meet with the rebel forces the very next day at Mile End, believing the looting and ransacking of the city would cease, and many would leave the city.

King Richard II rode out to meet Wat Tyler the leader of the rebel force at Mile End on the 14th June, where their demands were put forward:

  • Land rents were to be reduced to reasonable levels.

  • The Poll Tax was to be abolished.

  • Free pardons for all rebels.

  • Charters would be given to the peasant’s laying down a number of rights and privileges.

  • All traitors were to be put to death.

Richard agreed to their demands, with the added note, that a royal court would decide who is or not a traitor.

Wat Tyler wanted more; he outwitted the King and sneaked off with a group of rebels, and raided the Tower of London. He found the Simon Sudbury the Archbishop of Canterbury, Robert Hailes the King’s Treasurer and John Legge creator of the Poll Tax. These men were forcibly dragged out onto Tower Hill and beheaded; their heads were paraded around the city, before being fixed to London Bridge.

The peasant’s started leaving the city on mass and returning home, believing the charters they had, absolved them from charges, and their demands had been met. What they didn’t know, was that their leader Wat Tyler and a select group of rebels remained behind, to meet with the King at Smithfield. Wat Tyler was wounded by William Walworth, the Lord Mayor of London, at this meeting, and he died at the hands of a squire.

The King wanted his revenge on these peasant rebels. The King so ordered the execution of any man brandishing a charter, for it became a notice of execution. Thousands were slain by Royal Troops or sent to the gallows for their crimes.

Minor rebellions broke out across the country as rebel peasants returned home, and fire still burnt in their hearts. Violence spread like a plague, gaols opened, prisoner’s set free, court records burned, property looted and destruction on a large scale.

Rebel leaders were rounded up, by Royal Troops, to stand trial for their part in the Revolt.

  • Jack Straw was captured in London and executed.

  • John Ball was captured in Coventry, tried for his charges in St.Albans and hung, drawn and quartered in the market place.

  • John Wrawe was tried in London, and gave evidence against his colleagues hoping to be pardoned, but the court still sentenced him to death. He was hung, drawn and quartered on 6th May 1382.

  • Sir Roger Bacon, was tried and imprisoned in the Tower of London, before being pardoned by the Crown.

The King announced that all peasants’ previous conditions of service would come into effect on the 30th June, and that the Royal Charters signed during the uprising would be revoked on the 2nd July.

What was the final outcome of the Peasant’s Revolt?

  • The peasants were crushed by a mightier force, their demands refused, and thousands executed, for taking part.

  • Parliament gave up getting involved; in landowners payment to peasant’s who worked on their land.

  • The Poll Tax was abolished.

  • The peasant class gained respect from landowners and government, and were no longer part of the land, and became free men in their own right.

The 14th Century Peasant’s Revolt of 1381 showed if pushed too far, the working man can rise up and take action. What started as a local revolt centred around Essex spread across the South of England and up the East Coast.

(Image) Peasants Revolt: Wikipedia

St.Mary the Less Church – Norwich

St.Mary the Less Chuch – Norwich

As one gazes, across the Norwich roof tops, suddenly your eyes come to an abrupt halt, when a lowly church tower protrudes above the shops in Queen Street. This being the tower of St.Mary the Less, or more commonly known as the French Church.

Here in this part of the city, close to the cathedral, hidden from the passer-by, we find this church, surrounded by building’s on all sides, has long been forgotten. All that is now visible, is the top of the tower, and the porch situated down a quaint old alley, between building’s, in a busy city street. Back in 1744, this old church was reputed to have a churchyard, and even in those day’s, houses surrounded the south, west and east end of the churchyard, and the stonecutter’s yard occupied the north end. Today, the church is all but hidden, and the churchyard no longer exists.

Now days, we can only see two storey’s of this tall and handsome flint tower, rise above the shop building’s, that have become attached to its southern face. Its openings bricked up many years ago, with patching’s of brick and stone upon its buttresses, with its encircling rods of iron. The buttresses are of diagonal design, and climb to a plain, flat parapet, with a weather vane located above.

Situated behind the buildings, this forgotten church stretches east towards Tombland, with its pair of cast-iron gates marking its entrance in Queen Street, where this old porch is sandwiched between offices and shops. A plain and unassuming porch with its gabled top, of two storey design, with no windows at the front, and all that remains is a shallow niche. As one enter’s the dim interior, of what was once a small aisless church, now redundant and stripped of its fittings. At the entrance, we see two holy-water stoups, set back to back, and overhead a wooden staircase ascends to the parvise.

If we cast our eyes to the west, we see a narrow tower arch, as high as the roof of the nave; and to the east is the nave, whose windows contain fine decorated tracery. Whilst the chancel, slightly lower and narrower contain windows of a later style. The door used in the old north entrance, is a style you expect to see in a house, not in a church, with its plain glass in dazzling Victorian colours.

This old building, is said to have a long and colourful history. It dates from the 13th century, and was better known in those times as St.Mary of the Monastery Gate. At the time of the Dissolution of the Monasteries, the building ceased to be used as a place of worship. In 1544 the Corporation leased it from the Dean and Chapter, and shortly afterwards it was converted to a cloth hall, where the Dutch and Walloon strangers sold their cloth. They continued using the building until 1623, when it was converted for the sale of worsted yarn coming into the city; four years later, the yarn men outgrew the place, and ceased using it.

The Interior of St.Mary the Less

In 1637, St.Mary’s once more became a church, and started its long connection with the French Protestants of the city, and became known as the French Church. The Walloon Company obtained a lease from the Corporation, and restored the church, to its former glory.

For almost two centuries, the French Protestants worshipped here. Gradually the congregation dwindled away, and the language once spoken by their descendants ceased to be used. Until finally, the heirs of the last deacon (P.M.Martineau), appointed trustees to manage the estate. They leased the building to the Swedenborgians in 1832, who had their own set of ideas, that the natural and spiritual world were linked according to their Swedish visionary, Emanuel Swedenborg. This led to the remaining congregation turning to Unitarianism, and attending the Octagonal Chapel.

The Swedenborgians, carried out restoration to the church, this involved removal of the old pews from the west gallery, raising of the sanctuary, restoring the parvise, and the construction of a staircase leading to it. They continued using the church until 1869, when it was leased to the Scottish Divine, and St.Mary’sbecame a Catholic Apostolic Church and remained so until 1953.

As the years have passed by, the Church of St.Mary the Less, has been forgotten by time, hidden away from sight.

(Image) St.Mary the Less Church: Norfolkchurches

(Image) St.Mary’s Interior: Norfolkchurches

The Origins of Poetry

Quill – Scroll – Ink

The Ancient Greek timeline of poetry lasted from the 7th to 4th century BC, and are believed to be the first civilisation to commit their poems to the written word. They went on to produce most of the classic forms of literature, drama and poetry, and their great poets handed down their observations to the next and next generations.

Hesiod the 7th century Greek poet who wrote of a farmer’s life and Theogony, a genealogy of the God’s.

Pindar a 5th – 6th century lyric poet credited with writing ode’s to their victorious athlete’s.

Sappho a 7th century poet and she wrote of passionate love songs in a lyrical form.

The Ancient Greek’s period of culture ended when they were conquered firstly by Alexander the Great between (356-323 BC) and then again by the might of Rome in (250-150 BC).

The Romans went on to develop their own style of literary and poetic works, using the Greek form as their base. From these humble beginnings the creation of a modern style of literature so began.

During the 11th – 13th centuries, the mighty Popes of the Holy Roman Empire and the Middle Ages banned creative and artistic expression.

People wanted to express themselves, and so in the mid 11th century a group of troubadour musicians in Southern France sang and wrote lyrics. They were much influenced by the ways and lifestyle of the Arabic civilisation and Omar Khayyam and Rumi, having been inspired by Latin and Greek poets, and not of this land. With an understanding, the musicians and poets went forth and created a refreshingly new style by the 13th century.

Early troubadours started life as singing poets, but the true masters included the likes of Bertrand de Born, Arnaud Daniel, and Marie de France, and their style of works influenced the likes of Geoffrey Chaucer and Dante Alighieri. It was not uncommon to see the delivery of news, and performance styled sketches in a lyrical manner.

This has been referred to as the Provencal Movement of the 13th century and by the mid 14th century; most troubadours had fled to Italy and Spain to join the Sicilian School of poets.

For Frederick II let it be known he required poets to write about courtly love, and so it was between 1230 and 1266 many canzone’s (An Italian lyrical form of varying lengths, intended to be set to music, mainly based on romantic themes) were written.

A group of Sicilian poets in the court of Frederick II, were able to turn verses of love into a spiritual heartbeat, a style that would show its face during the Elizabethan and Shakespearean times.

With the 12th century, Sicily integrated the languages and cultural influences of Arabic, Greek and Latin, creating the perfect form for their lyrical poetry.

It all started with Cielo of Alcamo, a court poet, who created a form of lyrical poetry. From these early beginnings, the court poets used lyrical poetry and the canzone style which became the standard verse of the day. Yet like all new styles, someone was waiting in the wings to change it, and in this case it was Giacomo de Lentini, who re-invented it into a sonnet.

Giacomo de Lentini, proved himself to be more than that of a poet, for it was he who went on to create a new language: Italian.

With the help of Sicilian poets, they abolished repetitive and what has become known as interchangeable lines. They also believed poetry was for reading, not as an accompaniment to music and created a 14 – line sonnet structure, which is still used by many poets to this day.

The works and styles of Sicilian poets came to the attention of Dante as the 14th century loomed, who spread them through Florence, and the literary heartlands.

As the Renaissance period burst into existence, shining its light upon a new era in time. Scholars from many European countries keenly watched with interest, as a cultural awakening was taking place across Europe.

As the Italian Renaissance waned, its greatest poetic export was that of ballad and sonnet, which found their way to England with the assistance of Thomas Wyatt.

Christopher Marlowe (1564-1593) was responsible for the creation of the unrhymed verse, as used by him for his plays. He died early, and so William Shakespeare fashioned the style of the blank verse in a form which would meet the requirements of his plays.

Sonnets swept through England during the latter part of the 16th and early 17th century, through the writings of Edmund Spenser, Philip Sydney and William Shakespeare, each adding their own individual touches.

Poets of the Elizabethan era had more freedom in their writings, and so the human side became the new genre in writing. One could say that the Elizabethan times, showed a slight resemblance to the early works of Ancient Greek.

The Greatest Renaissance poet would have to be John Milton (1608-1674) who wrote Paradise Lost, which was published in 1667. An interesting fact though, by 1652 he was blind and worked as a Latin Secretary to one Oliver Cromwell, assisted by Andrew Marvel (1621-1678) a Metaphysical Poet.

Nearly a century later, a new breed arose, the Metaphysical Poets who wrote of nature, philosophy and love, starting with John Dryden. They were known as men of learning, and they wanted to show off their abilities to one and all.

Metaphysical Poetry concluded when William Blake bridged the gap between it, and that of romantic poetry. Poets were known to look beyond the obvious, a style which would influence the American Transcendentalism, like those of Samuel Cowley, Andrew Marvell and Katherine Philips.

England’s time had arrived with the dawning of the Romantic Poets era, a period which lasted between (1790-1824), yet went on to produce many works written by the masters which we still read to this day.

These poets included the likes of:

William Blake (1757-1827) An English painter and poet, who enhanced his work with illustrations as can be seen in his works “Songs of Innocence.”

William Wordsworth (1770-1850) An English poet, whose heart showed much support for the French Revolution, which shows through his works, and a love for the English countryside.

Lord Byron (1788-1824) A romantic poet, who supported Italian Independence and the Greek revolt against Turkey. Often remembered for his sexual scandals, which saw the English society turn their backs on him.

Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772-1834) Writer of romantic poems, and remembered for; “Rime of the Ancient Mariner.”

Percy Shelley (1792-1822) Writer who got himself expelled from Oxford University for co-writing “The Necessity of Atheism.” Yet he went on to write “Ode to a skylark,” and other poems which reflected his idealism and radical thoughts on politics.

John Keats (1795-1821) Another of the English poets who wrote “Ode to a Nightingale,” and “Ode to a Grecian Urn.”

They wrote together, travelled together and lived together.

They made nature a more important part of their works, with more expression and passion, as to challenge the minds and imaginations of their readers … in so doing they planted a seed, which would flourish into a relationship.

Another poet who would be remembered for his works would be Alfred Tennyson (1809-1892) for “The Lotus Eaters.”

A new era replaced the Romantic Movement in 1836; the American Transcendentalists, for they believed in expression of their thoughts through the written word.

They changed people’s ideas on poetry, and studied utopian values, spiritual exploration, and into the artistic side. Their ideals brought authors, poets and social leaders to their door, and so they grew.

The 19th century saw the American; Gerald Manley Hopkins (1844-1889), put forward natural speech and Walt Whitman (1819-1892) create the free-verse style of poetry.

French poet; Paul Verlaine (1844-1896) put forward the idea that poetry should contain an air of vagueness and music within poems.

The first Surrealist Movement manifesto was drawn up by Andre Breton the French poet in 1924, asking poets to explore the world of dreams, sub consciousness and hallucinations in their works.

American poet Ezra Pound (1885-1972) promoted the works of W.B.Yeats (1865-1939) and T.S.Elliot (1888-1965).

In 1948, with the Second World War over, we saw the emergence of what became known as the Beat Movement. The style was based on characters and interests, who desired to live life, as they wished to.

It was the beginning of the narrative free verse written by Allen Ginsberg, it was all about free expression. In 1956 he published a collection of works entitled “Howl.” So it was that these beat poets as they had been referred to, created a new appreciation in the love of poetry.

As the interest grew, more beat poets surfaced, like; Joanne Kyger, Herbert Huncke, LeRoi Jones, to move the art of poetry further forward.

The history of poetry has had a long and mixed relationship with the reader as the styles have changed. For in the early days, the definition of poetic writings focused on nature, love, drama and song and later concentrated on repetition and rhyme and how it would read and sound.

Poetry has been used to expand the literal meaning of words, to evoke an emotional feeling or a sensual response…

Poetry has often been referred to, as a way a poet, can create poems as a need to escape the logical side of life.

(Image) Quill, Scroll and Ink: MP3 Designs

 

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